For more than a decade, Supersample Anti-Aliasing (SSAA) and Multisample Anti-Aliasing (MSAA) have been the gold standard antialiasing solution in games. However, these techniques are not well suited for deferred shading or fixed environments like the current generation of consoles. In the last years, Industry and Academia have begun to explore alternative approaches, where anti-aliasing is performed as a post-processing step. The original, CPU-based Morphological Anti-Aliasing (MLAA) method gave birth to an explosion of real-time anti-aliasing techniques that rival MSAA. This course will cover the most relevant techniques, from the original MLAA to the latest cutting edge advancements.

Talks & Course Notes

Download Extended Abstract [6.49 MB]


Abstract: Brief overview of why post-processing is gaining momentum in the last couple of years and introduction of the speakers.

Bio: Diego Gutierrez is an Associate Professor at the Universidad de Zaragoza, where he got his PhD in computer graphics in 2005. He now leads his group's research on graphics, perception and computational photography. He is an associate editor of three journals, has chaired and organized several conferences and has served on numerous committees including the SIGGRAPH and Eurographics conferences.

Download:PPTX [145.94 KB] | PDF [373.04 KB]

Diego Gutierrez

Key Idea: Solve a least squares problem to fit a plane to the color samples from the multisampled color buffer to find the gradient of the edge.

Bio: Jason Yang is a Principal Member of Technical Staff for Advanced Technology Initiatives at AMD where he has contributed to graphics, physics, video, encryption, and GPGPU technologies. Recently he worked on the Radeon 6000 series demo titled “HK2207”. He received his BS and PhD from MIT.

Download:PPTX [3.77 MB] | PDF [2.90 MB]

Jason Yang

Key Idea: Blend colors around silhouettes inferred from pixel discontinuity data.

Bio: Alex Reshetov received his Ph.D. degree from Keldysh Institute for Applied Mathematics (in Russia). He joined Intel Labs in 1997 as a senior staff researcher after working for two years at the Super-Conducting Super-Collider Laboratory in Texas. His research interests span 3D graphics algorithms and applications, and physically based simulation.

Download:PPTX [11.99 MB] | PDF [4.17 MB]

Alexander Reshetov

Key Idea: Transform MLAA into a GPU-friendly shader (Jimenez's MLAA). Introduction to SMAA (Subpixel Morphological Anti-Aliasing), showing how to extend Jimenez's MLAA to handle subpixel features seamlessly, and describing how to improve its pattern detection and handling.

Bio: Jorge Jimenez is a real-time graphics researcher at the Universidad de Zaragoza, in Spain, where he received his BSc and MSc degrees, and where he is pursuing a PhD in real-time graphics. His interests include real-time photorealistic rendering, special effects, and squeezing rendering algorithms to be practical in game environments. He has numerous contributions in books and journals, including Transaction on Graphics, where he got the cover of the SIGGRAPH Asia 2010 Issue.

Download:PPTX [5.94 MB] | PDF [7.58 MB]

Jorge Jimenez

Key Idea: Hybrid MLAA performs the cheap, fixed cost MLAA calculations on the GPU while offloading the remaining work to the CPU, giving high quality anti-aliasing with minimal GPU and memory cost.

Bio: Pete Demoreuille developed this implementation at Double Fine Productions, while working on all aspects of the engine and graphics technology. Prior to Double Fine he was at Pixar Animation Studios, working on the internal animation and modeling systems, and developing new rendering and lighting tools for Cars. He is currently at Google.

Download:PPTX [5.28 MB] | PDF [2.71 MB]

Pete Demoreuille

Key Idea: Low latency MLAA in God of War III: When compared to MSAA, running MLAA as a post effect on the SPUs can be made neutral in term of latency thanks to the shorter GPU frame and an early buffer flip during the next frame.

Bio: Cedric Perthuis started his work in the graphics community at Intrinsic Graphics in 2002. He quickly joined Sony Computer Entertainment to build the original Playstation Cross Media Bar. After some work on embedded devices in the startup Emdigo, he co-developed Cg for PS3 in the PSGL group. He then became lead PS3 engineer for the Swedish studio Grin, before joining Sony Santa Monica Studio where he has been actively researching, developing and optimizing new rendering techniques. He recently shipped God of War 3. Cedric has a Master's degree in Applied Mathematics and Computer Science from ENSEEIHT, Toulouse, France.

Bio: Tobias Berghoff first got paid for making games when he joined Ascaron Entertainment in 2005. Later, he spent a year making GPUs stare at the sun for the Royal Observatory of Belgium, before moving on to the Advanced Technology Group of Sony Computer Entertainment’s World Wide Studios. He now works on graphics related technologies for PS3 and NGP. Tobias holds an Informatik Diplom from the University of Paderborn.

Download:PPTX [11.57 MB] | PDF [12.52 MB]

Cedric Perthuis

Tobias Berghoff


Key Idea: Kalloc Studios' "SPUAA" technology is an anti-aliasing technique designed for the PS3 which uses SPUs to processes the final color buffer. The SPUs work on 80x80 tiles to calculate luminance, perform edge detection, populate streaks, and blend edges using a three-pass process.

Bio: Henry Yu is the founder and technical director of Kalloc Studios, in developing game engine technology and tool pipeline for consoles and PC platforms.

Henry Yu

Key Idea: Use true geometric information to reconstruct lower-frequency color with correct sub-pixel edges. That is, filter color within a pixel using real edge information, like MSAA without the cost.

Bio: Morgan McGuire is a professor at Williams College and visiting professor at NVIDIA Research. He co-chaired the I3D 2008, 2009, and NPAR 2010 conferences, is a member of the Journal of Graphics, Game, and GPU Tools editorial board, and the lead author of Creating Games: Mechanics, Content, and Technology. He has contributed to many commercial products including the E-Ink display for the Amazon Kindle, the PeakStream high-performance computing infrastructure acquired by Google, the Titan Quest role playing game, and the Marvel Ultimate Alliance 2 video game for Xbox 360. His current research is in high-performance parallel algorithms and sampling techniques. .

Download:PPTX [12.18 MB] | PDF [3.66 MB]

Morgan McGuire

Key Idea: Local Contrast Adaptive Directional Edge Blur. Algorithm applies a 2 or 4-tap variable length box filter 90 degrees to luma gradient, with an adjustment on filter length and direction to help remove sub-pixel aliasing. Works as one full screen pixel shader pass taking color as input and writing color as output. Extremely fast algorithm, averaging just 0.11 ms per million pixels on NVIDIA GTX 480.

Bio: Timothy Lottes is an Engineer in the Developer Technology group at NVIDIA. Prior Timothy was a console game developer at Human Head Studios, in Systems Research and Development at Industrial Light and Magic, and owner/photographer/developer of Farrar Focus, a fine art landscape photography and digital photo development tools business.. .

Download:PPTX [2.06 MB] | PDF [3.31 MB]

Timothy Lottes

Key Idea: Distance to edge is calculated during the forward pass pixel shader, by applying ddx/ddy to a texture coordinate that will be 0 on edge vertices.

Bio: Hugh Malan is a graphics programmer working on Dust 514 at CCP, in Newcastle. Previously he worked as graphics lead for Crackdown and MyWorld for Realtime Worlds. Hugh is a graduate of Victoria University and Otago University, New Zealand.

Download:PPTX [932.55 KB] | PDF [730.97 KB]

Hugh Malan

Key Idea: Geometry information is written to a separate render target and sampled in a post-step to select a neighbor pixel to blend with and accurately compute the coverage.

Bio: Emil Persson is a graphics programmer at Avalanche Studios where he is working on advanced rendering techniques and optimizations. Previously he worked as an ISV Engineer at ATI/AMD developer relations where he assisted the top game developers with rendering techniques and optimizations, in addition to R&D and SDK development. Emil also runs the where he provides open source graphics samples to the community.

Download:PPTX [1.21 MB] | PDF [1.64 MB]

Emil Persson

Key Idea: Blur the edges along their directions.

Bio: Dmitry Andreev is a rendering engineer and video games developer with more than 10 years of experience. He started his journey from 8-bit machines and got famous for his 64k intros in the demoscene, pushing the bar of competition at the time. Worked on all variety of game genres including FPS, RPG and Action games, leading development of core technology and graphics. Over past years he has been pushing real-time graphics in high-end AAA titles to its limits on PlayStation3 and XBox360 consoles with elegant and simple high-performance solutions. B.S. in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics.

Download:PPTX [4.71 MB] | PDF [8.12 MB]

Dmitry Andreev

Key Idea: Combined concept of accumulation buffer SSAA distributed over frames with realtime temporal AA velocity information to minimize global ghosting at 30hz. Selective blending of sub-samples based on depth, velocity or color. 2x Quincunx sampling pattern for approximating 4x SSAA.

Bio: Tiago Sousa is Crytek’s Principal R&D Graphics Engineer, where he has worked for past 8 years, on all Crytek numerous demos, shipped game titles and engines, including Far Cry, Crysis and more recently finished Crysis 2 - Crytek’s first multiplatform game. He is a self-taught graphics programmer, who before joining Crytek army on the cause of world domination, cofounded a pioneering game development team in Portugal and very briefly studied computer science at Instituto Superior Técnico, which he still has hopes to finish one day.

Download:PPTX [16.94 MB] | PDF [13.28 MB]

Tiago Sousa
5:25Wrap-up and Discussion / Q & A


    author = {Jorge Jimenez and Diego Gutierrez and Jason Yang and Alexander Reshetov and
              Pete Demoreuille and Tobias Berghoff and Cedric Perthuis and Henry Yu and
              Morgan McGuire and Timothy Lottes and Hugh Malan and Emil Persson and
              Dmitry Andreev and Tiago Sousa},
    title = {Filtering Approaches for Real-Time Anti-Aliasing},
    booktitle = {ACM SIGGRAPH Courses},
    year = {2011},